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(from Science Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy. In the West, the term encompassed fields of study that are currently associated with disciplines such as natural philosophy classical physics, astronomy and medicine and was a precursor of modern natural sciences ( life science and physical science). In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of . Over the centuries, the term laws of nature science became associated with the scientific method, a systematic way of studying the natural world and particularly in the 19th century, multiple distinguishing characteristics of contemporary modern science began to take shape.
Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g. biology, chemistry, physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g. psychology, sociology, economics), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g. mathematics, logic, theoretical computer science), which study abstract concepts. There is disagreement, however, on the formal sciences being a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use science, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences.
Science is related to
research and is commonly organized by academic and research institutions as well as government agencies and companies. The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, and environmental protection.
, also known under the name
, is a highly
that forms white fumes on contact with
. These fumes consist of
which forms when hydrogen chloride
. Hydrogen chloride gas as well as hydrochloric acid are important
. The name HCl often refers somewhat misleadingly to hydrochloric acid instead of the gaseous hydrogen chloride.
Hydrogen chloride forms corrosive hydrochloric acid on contact with body tissue.
Inhalation of the fumes can cause coughing, choking, inflammation of the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract, and in severe cases, pulmonary edema, circulatory system failure, and death. Skin contact can cause redness, pain, and severe skin burns. Hydrogen chloride may cause severe burns to the eye and permanent eye damage.
is a powerful natural Lightning of lighted streaks produced during a thunderstorm. This abrupt electric discharge is accompanied by the emission of visible light and other forms of electrostatic discharge electromagnetic radiation. The electric current passing through the discharge channels rapidly heats and expands the air into plasma, producing acoustic shock waves (thunder) in the atmosphere.
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