Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems (e. g. machines) applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.
The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.
Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition.
was the second manned mission
of the Apollo space program
. Commander Frank Borman
, Command Module Pilot James Lovell
and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders
became the first humans to travel beyond Earth orbit
and into an orbit around the Moon
. It was also the first manned launch of the Saturn V rocket
. NASA prepared for the mission in only four months. The hardware involved had only been used a few times—the Saturn V had only launched twice before, and the Apollo spacecraft had only just finished its first manned mission, Apollo 7
. However the success of the mission paved the way for the successful completion of John F. Kennedy
's goal of landing on the Moon before the end of the decade. After launching on December 21
, the crew took three days to travel to the Moon, which they orbited for twenty hours. While in lunar orbit they made a Christmas Eve
television broadcast that is thought to be one of the most watched of all time.
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Did you know...
(1915–2010) was an optical astronomer
and expert in photometry
. Born in New Zealand, Gascoigne moved to Australia to work at the Commonwealth Solar Observatory
at Mount Stromlo
. He became skillful in the design and manufacture of optical devices
such as telescope
elements. He and astronomer Gerald Kron used modernised telescopes at Mount Stromlo to determine that the distance between the Milky Way
and the Magellanic Cloud
dwarf galaxies had been underestimated by a factor of two. Because this measurement was used to calibrate other distances in astronomy, the result effectively doubled the estimated size of the universe
. They also found that star formation in the Magellanic Clouds had occurred more recently than in the Milky Way; this overturned the prevailing view that both had evolved in parallel. Gascoigne was involved in the conception and commissioning of the Anglo-Australian Telescope
, Australia's largest optical telescope. He was made an Officer of the Order of Australia
for his contributions to astronomy and to the Anglo-Australian Telescope. After he retired, Gascoigne acted as curator and photographer for his wife, artist Rosalie Gascoigne
, using his technical skills to make her artworks resilient for public display.
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