Banknotes of the Australian pound were first issued by numerous private banks in Australia, starting with the Bank of New South Wales in 1817. Acceptance of private bank notes was not made compulsory by legal tender laws but they were widely used and accepted. The Queensland government issued treasury notes (1866–1869) and banknotes (1893–1910) which were legal tender in Queensland. The New South Wales government issued a limited series of Treasury Notes in 1893. The Commonwealth government passed an Act in 1910 which prohibited the issue of banknotes by private banks, and established Commonwealth powers to issue, re-issue, and cancel Australian notes. These notes were initially issued by the Australian Treasury, and then by the Commonwealth Bank from 1920. The Australian pound was replaced by the Australian dollar in 1966.
This note, denominated one pound, is part of the 1923 series.
Religion saved by Spain is an oil on canvas painting produced between 1572 and 1575 by the Venetian school artist Titian, commemorating the Battle of Lepanto. It is an allegory, portraying Spain as a woman in a dramatic landscape, wielding a shield and spear. The Turkish threat is shown by a man wearing a turban in a chariot with two horses on the sea. Christianity is depicted as a woman falling on her knees, threatened not only by the Turks but also by Protestantism, represented by snakes. The painting now hangs in the Prado Museum in Madrid.Painting: Titian
C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) is a long-period comet discovered in 2014 by Australian astronomer Terry Lovejoy using a 0.2-meter (8 in) Schmidt–Cassegrain telescope. It was discovered at apparent magnitude 15 in the southern constellation of Puppis, and is the fifth comet discovered by Lovejoy. Its blue-green glow is the result of organic molecules and water released by the comet fluorescing under the harsh UV and optical light of the sun as it passes through space.Photograph: John Vermette
Ho Chi Minh City, also known by its former name of Saigon, is a city in Vietnam. With a municipal population of over 8.4 million, and a metropolitan area of around 12 million people, it is the largest city in the country. The earliest settlement in the area was a Funan temple, founded in the 4th century AD. A settlement called Baigaur, part of the Cham Empire, was established on the site in the 11th century and renamed to Prey Nokor when the empire was invaded by the Khmer people. The Khmer king began allowing Vietnamese people to live in the city from 1623, and it became a Vietnamese city under the leadership of Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh in 1698. Initially called Gia Dinh, the Vietnamese city became Saigon in the 18th century. The city was part of the French Empire from 1862 and after World War II became capital of the state of South Vietnam. The city was taken over by North Vietnam in 1975, an event which ended the Vietnam War.Photograph: Diego Delso
Rosa Bonheur (1822–1899) was a French artist, painter of animals, and sculptor, known for her artistic realism. Born in Bordeaux into a family of artists, she moved to Paris at the age of six. Spending much of her time drawing from an early age, Bonheur had a difficult childhood and was expelled from several schools, eventually being trained as a painter by her father. A French government commission led to Bonheur's first great success, Ploughing in the Nivernais, exhibited in 1849. In 1855 she completed The Horse Fair, which is regarded as her most famous work.
Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells derived from the embryo of humans and other animals during the blastocyst stage of development, before implantation. In human embryos this stage is reached 4–5 days after fertilization, at which time they consist of 50–150 cells. The cells are the subject of considerable research into potential therapeutic use, including the treatment of diabetes and heart disease. They are also studied for clinical therapies, models of genetic disorders, and cellular/DNA repair. However, adverse effects in the research and clinical processes such as tumours and unwanted immune responses have been reported. Isolating the inner cell mass results in destruction of the blastocyst, a process which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should have the same moral considerations as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development.Photograph: Ryddragyn
World War I was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel participated, making it one of the largest wars in history. An estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a direct result of the war with losses exacerbated by technological developments and the tactical stalemate caused by trench warfare(pictured). The war is also considered a contributory factor in a number of genocides and the 1918 influenza epidemic, which caused between 50 and 100 million deaths worldwide. Unresolved rivalries at the end of the conflict contributed to the outbreak of World War II about twenty years later.Photograph: Lt. J. W. Brooke
The rock hyrax (Procavia capensis), also known as the dassie, is one of four living species of the order Hyracoidea, and the only living species in its genus. Like all hyraxes, it is a medium-sized terrestrial mammal between 4 kilograms (9 lb) and 5 kilograms (11 lb) in mass, with short ears and tail. The rock hyrax is found across Africa and the Middle East, at elevations up to 4,200 metres (13,800 ft). It resides in habitats with rock crevices which it uses to escape from predators. Along with the other hyrax species and the manatee, these are the animals most closely related to the elephant.Photograph: Charles J. Sharp
The Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida is a Catholic basilica located in the Brazilian city of Aparecida. According to local tradition, a group of fishermen caught a statue of the Virgin Mary in their nets in 1717, a find which considerably improved their subsequent catches. One of the fishermen kept the statue at his home, which became a popular site for pilgrims. A small chapel was built to house it, but was replaced by successively larger churches as the statue's popularity grew. The present building was built from 1955, and houses 45,000 people.Photograph: Valter Campanato, Agência Brasil.
This picture shows a panoramic view from a ridge located between the Segla and Hesten mountain summits on Senja. The fjord to the left is Øyfjorden and the fjord to the right is Mefjorden.Photograph: Simo Räsänen
The Dust Bowl was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s. Drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion caused the phenomenon. The drought came in three waves, 1934, 1936, and 1939–1940, but some regions of the high plains experienced drought conditions for as many as eight years.
Pictured is the Long Room, which is situated in the Old Library building. It was built between 1712 and 1732, has a length of 65 metres (213 ft), and houses 200,000 of the Library's oldest books.Photograph: David Iliff
Still Life with Profile of Laval is an 1886 oil painting by French artist Paul Gauguin. It depicts his friend Charles Laval, in profile, with an assortment of inanimate objects. They met in the summer of 1886, and Laval became Gauguin's pupil shortly afterwards. The ceramic pot in the painting was created by Gauguin himself, one of a collection of ceramic experiments by the artist. He valued these highly, as both artistic objects and sources of income. The pot cannot be located, and may have been destroyed. Still Life with Profile of Laval is in the Indianapolis Museum of Art.Painting: Paul Gauguin
Stephan's Quintet is a visual grouping of five galaxies of which four form the first compact galaxy group ever discovered. The group, visible in the constellation Pegasus, was discovered by Édouard Stephan in 1877 at the Marseille Observatory. The brightest member of the visual grouping is the spiral galaxy NGC 7320 that is shown to have extensive H II regions, identified as red blobs, where active star formation is occurring. Stephan's Quintet is the most studied of all the compact galaxy groups.Image: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble SM4 ERO team.
xkcd is a webcomic created in 2005 by American author Randall Munroe. Describing itself as "a webcomic of romance, sarcasm, math, and language", its subjects include statements on life and love as well as mathematical, programming, and scientific in-jokes. Although it has a cast of stick figures, the comic occasionally features landscapes, graphs, and intricate mathematical patterns such as fractals. New cartoons are added three times a week, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.
Farida Arriany (24 November 1938 – 15 October 1977), was an Indonesian actress and singer. Born in Bandung, West Java, she made her feature film debut in 1955, taking the role of Sari in Golden Arrow's Kasih Ibu (A Mother's Love). She appeared in eighteen further films in the following six years, including an apearance as Lastri in the 1957 film Anakku Sajang (My Dear Child), for which she won Best Leading Actress at the 1960 Indonesian Film Week. She established her own film company in the 1960s, producing Kami Bangun Hari Esok (We Wake Tomorrow) in 1963, the first Indonesian film shot with CinemaScope. After a period of inactivity in the mid-1960s she appeared in films again from 1969 until her death, including a singing role in Sjumandjaja's Apa jang Kau Tjari, Palupi? (What Are You Seeking, Palupi?) and Wim Umboh's Laki-Laki Tak Bernama (Man Without a Name).Photograph: Tati Studio. Restoration: Chris Woodrich
Allegory of Fortune, sometimes also named La Fortuna, is a 1658 or 1659 oil painting by the Italian baroque painter Salvator Rosa. It depicts Fortuna, the goddess of fortune, pouring her gifts on an array of undeserving animals. It breaks with traditional Fortuna depictions in portraying her with eyes uncovered, aware of the recipients of the gifts, rather than with her eyes covered. Painted at the same time as Rosa's essay Babilonia, a satirical condemnation of the papal court, Allegory of Fortune was interpreted initially as an attack on Pope Alexander VII's patronage, with the hogs seen as representing churchmen. He was threatened with imprisonment and excommunicated until being saved by an intervention from the pope's brother, Don Marco Chigi.Painting: Salvator Rosa
Sveti Stefan is a small islet and five-star hotel on the Adriatic coast of Montenegro, close to the city of Budva. Sveti Stefan was the capital city of the Paštrovići community, which became a protectorate of the Republic of Venice in 1423 having likely been independent since the twelfth century. Following a population decline in the early twentieth century, the Yugoslav authorities relocated the remaining population and converted the islet into a luxury hotel. It became popular with celebrities such as Marilyn Monroe and was used by Novak Djokovic for his wedding in 2014. It is now operated by Aman Resorts.Photograph: Halavar