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|<<||Selected anniversaries for July||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2018 day arrangement
- 1770 – Lexell's Comet passed closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of 0.015 AU.
- 1943 – Tokyo City was dissolved, with its territory divided into the special wards of the newly created Tokyo Metropolis (Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building pictured).
- 1999 – Legislative governance of Scotland was transferred from the Scottish Office in Westminster to the Scottish Parliament.
- 2008 – Rioting erupted in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, in response to allegations of fraud surrounding the recent legislative elections.
- 706 – In China, the bodies of Emperor Gaozong of Tang and Empress Wu Zetian were interred in the Qianling Mausoleum, the only imperial Tang dynasty tombs that were untouched by grave robbers.
- 1881 – U.S. President James A. Garfield was fatally shot at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad station in Washington, D.C.
- 1900 – Finlandia, a tone poem by Jean Sibelius which forms the basis of one of the national songs of Finland, was first performed in Helsinki.
- 1950 – A mentally ill Buddhist monk set fire to the Golden Pavilion at Kinkaku-ji (restoration pictured), destroying what is now one of the most popular tourist destinations in Japan.
- 2013 – The International Astronomical Union announced that the fourth and fifth moons of Pluto would be named Kerberos and Styx respectively.
- 324 – Roman emperor Constantine the Great defeated former colleague Licinius in the Battle of Adrianople.
- 1754 – French and Indian War: George Washington surrendered Fort Necessity in Pennsylvania, the only military surrender in his entire career.
- 1938 – On the 75th anniversary of the end of the Battle of Gettysburg, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated the Eternal Light Peace Memorial (pictured).
- 1970 – The Troubles: The British Army imposed the Falls Curfew on Belfast, Northern Ireland, which resulted in greater Irish republican resistance.
- 1988 – United States Navy warship USS Vincennes shot down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people aboard.
- 1054 – Chinese astronomers recorded the sudden appearance of a "guest star", later identified as the supernova that created the Crab Nebula.
- 1776 – In Philadelphia, the Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence (signing pictured), announcing that the thirteen American colonies were no longer a part of the British Empire.
- 1918 – World War I: An Allied force led by the Australian general John Monash was victorious in the Battle of Hamel, demonstrating the effectiveness of combined arms techniques in trench warfare.
- 1943 – The aircraft carrying Władysław Sikorski, Prime Minister of the Polish government-in-exile, crashed, killing him and fifteen others, leading to several conspiracy theories.
- 1954 – In what is known as "The Miracle of Bern", West Germany defeated Hungary 3–2 to win the FIFA World Cup.
- 1594 – The Portuguese governor of Ceylon Pedro Lopes de Sousa began a failed attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Kandy.
- 1775 – The Second Continental Congress of Britain's Thirteen Colonies adopted the Olive Branch Petition in the hopes of avoiding war with Great Britain.
- 1937 – The Hormel Foods Corporation introduced Spam, the canned precooked meat product that would eventually enter into pop culture, folklore, and urban legend.
- 1948 – Aneurin Bevan, the Health Minister of the United Kingdom, launched the National Health Service, one of the major social reforms following the Second World War.
- 2012 – The Shard (pictured) in London was inaugurated as the tallest building in Europe, with a height of 310 m (1,020 ft), but was surpassed by Moscow's Mercury City Tower four months later.
- 1483 – The last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty, Richard III (pictured), was crowned King of England.
- 1801 – French Revolutionary Wars: A Royal Navy squadron attempted to eliminate a smaller French Navy squadron at Algeciras before they could join their Spanish allies.
- 1940 – The Story Bridge in Brisbane, the longest cantilever bridge in Australia, was opened by Sir Leslie Wilson, Governor of Queensland.
- 1978 – A sleeping car train at Taunton, England, caught fire, killing 12 people and causing British Rail to install state-of-the art fire prevention measures.
- 2013 – Gunmen attacked a secondary school in Mamudo, Yobe State, Nigeria, killing at least 42 people, mostly students.
- 1575 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: In the last major battle between England and Scotland, a "Truce Day" at Carter Bar near Redesdale degenerated into a fight where the English side were routed.
- 1834 – In New York City, four nights of rioting against abolitionists began, fueled by rumors that they were encouraging miscegenation.
- 1937 – The Peel Commission published a report stating the British Mandate for Palestine had become unworkable and recommended the partition of Mandatory Palestine into two states.
- 1963 – The police of Ngô Đình Nhu, brother and chief political adviser of President of South Vietnam Ngô Đình Diệm, attacked a group of American journalists who were covering a protest during the Buddhist crisis.
- 2005 – Suicide bombers killed 52 people in a series of four explosions on London's public transport system (emergency responders pictured).
- 1663 – King Charles II of England granted John Clarke the Rhode Island Royal Charter, described by one historian as "the grandest instrument of human liberty ever constructed."
- 1879 – Led by George W. De Long, the ill-fated Jeannette Expedition departed San Francisco to reach the North Pole by pioneering a route through the Bering Strait.
- 1898 – American con artist and gangster Soapy Smith (pictured) was killed in Skagway, Alaska, when an argument with fellow gang members turned into an unexpected gunfight.
- 1962 – Following student protests at Rangoon University, Burmese General Ne Win ordered the demolition of the school's Students Union building.
- 2014 – In response to the kidnapping and murder of Israeli teenagers, Israel launched a military operation in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip.
- 1572 – Nineteen Catholic friars and clerics were hanged in Gorkum during the 16th-century religious wars in the Low Countries.
- 1868 – The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, including the Citizenship Clause and the Equal Protection Clause, was ratified by the minimum required twenty-eight states.
- 1943 – World War II: The Allies began their invasion of Sicily (American tank pictured), a large scale amphibious and airborne operation, followed by six weeks of land combat.
- 1958 – A 525 m (1,722 ft) high megatsunami, the highest ever recorded, struck Lituya Bay, Alaska, U.S.
- 2008 – Under the belief that Israel and the United States were planning to attack its nuclear program, Iran conducted the Great Prophet III missile test and war games exercise.
- 1553 – Four days after the death of her predecessor, Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey (pictured) was officially proclaimed Queen of England, beginning her reign as "The Nine Days' Queen".
- 1806 – Indian sepoys mutinied against the East India Company at Vellore Fort, killing at least 100 British troops.
- 1940 – The Luftwaffe began attacks on British convoys in the English Channel to start the Battle of Britain.
- 1973 – John Paul Getty III, grandson of American oil magnate J. Paul Getty, was kidnapped in Rome.
- 2011 – The Russian river cruise liner Bulgaria was caught in a storm in Tatarstan on the Volga River and sank in several minutes, resulting in 122 deaths.
- 1804 – U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr mortally wounded former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton during a duel (pistols pictured) in Weehawken, New Jersey.
- 1833 – Noongar warrior Yagan, wanted for leading attacks on white colonists in Western Australia, was killed, becoming a symbol of the unjust and sometimes brutal treatment of the indigenous peoples of Australia by colonial settlers.
- 1848 – London Waterloo station, Britain's busiest railway station by passenger usage, was opened by the London and South Western Railway.
- 1991 – Shortly after takeoff from King Abdulaziz International Airport, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria Airways Flight 2120 caught fire and crashed, killing all 261 people on board.
- 2011 – An explosion at the Evangelos Florakis Naval Base killed 13 people, including the head of the Cyprus Navy.
- 927 – Æthelstan, King of England, secured the submission of four northern rulers: Constantine II of Scotland, Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Ealdred of Bamburgh, and Owain ap Dyfnwal of Strathclyde
- 1843 – Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, proclaimed a revelation recommending polygamy.
- 1918 – An explosion in the ammunition magazine of the Japanese battleship Kawachi (pictured) resulted in the loss of over 600 officers and crewmen.
- 1948 – Arab–Israeli War: Israel Defense Forces officer Yitzhak Rabin signed the order to expel Palestinians from the towns of Lod and Ramla.
- 1971 – The Australian Aboriginal Flag, one of the official flags of Australia, was flown for the first time.
- 1863 – Four days of rioting began in New York City by opponents of new laws passed by the United States Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War.
- 1878 – At the conclusion of the Congress of Berlin, the major powers in Europe signed the Treaty of Berlin, redrawing the map of the Balkans.
- 1962 – In an unprecedented action, British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan (pictured) dismissed seven members of his Cabinet.
- 2008 – War in Afghanistan: Taliban guerrillas attacked NATO troops in the far eastern province of Nuristan.
- 1789 – French Revolution: Parisians stormed the Bastille (pictured), freeing its inmates and taking the prison's large quantities of arms and ammunition.
- 1791 – The Priestley Riots began, in which Joseph Priestley and other religious Dissenters were driven out of Birmingham, England.
- 1958 – Faisal II, the last king of Iraq, was overthrown by a military coup d'état led by Abd al-Karim Qasim.
- 2003 – In an effort to discredit U.S. Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, who had written an op-ed critical of the invasion of Iraq, his wife Valerie Plame's identity as a CIA operative was leaked to and published by Washington Post columnist Robert Novak.
- 2015 – The New Horizons probe became the first spacecraft to explore Pluto.
- 1410 – The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeated the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of Grunwald, the decisive engagement of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
- 1815 – Aboard HMS Bellerophon, Napoleon surrendered to Royal Navy Captain Frederick Lewis Maitland to finally end the Napoleonic Wars.
- 1916 – William Boeing incorporated the Pacific Aero Products Co., which was later renamed Boeing.
- 1983 – Armenian extremist organization ASALA bombed the Turkish Airlines check-in counter at Orly Airport, killing 8 and injuring 55, as part of its campaign for the recognition of and reparations for the Armenian Genocide.
- 2006 – The online social networking and news service Twitter was launched (early sketch pictured).
- 1232 – A local mosque elected Muhammad ibn Al-Ahmar, who later established the last Muslim state in Spain, as ruler of Arjona.
- 1790 – U.S. President George Washington signed the Residence Act, selecting a new permanent site along the Potomac River for the capital of the United States, which later became Washington, D.C.
- 1994 – Fragments of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 began hitting the planet Jupiter (impact site pictured), with the first one causing a fireball which reached a peak temperature of about 24,000 K.
- 2008 – A tainted milk powder scandal broke in China which ultimately involved an estimated 300,000 victims, the vast majority infants, with 54,000 hospitalized with kidney problems and 6 deaths.
- 1771 – Dene men, acting as guides to Samuel Hearne on his exploration of the Coppermine River in present-day Nunavut, Canada, massacred a group of about 20 Copper Inuit.
- 1863 – The New Zealand Wars resumed as British forces in New Zealand led by General Duncan Cameron began their Invasion of the Waikato.
- 1918 – RMS Carpathia, which had rescued the survivors of the RMS Titanic sinking in 1912, was sunk by a German U-boat with the loss of five crew.
- 1945 – Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman, and Joseph Stalin (all pictured), leaders of the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union respectively, met in Potsdam to decide what should be done with post-war Germany.
- 1998 – A tsunami triggered by an undersea earthquake devastated several villages in Papua New Guinea, killing more than 2,100 people, and destroying the homes of thousands more.
- 1290 – Edward I issued an edict expelling all Jews from England.
- 1806 – A gunpowder magazine explosion in Birgu, Malta, killed an estimated 200 people.
- 1949 – Francisco Javier Arana, Chief of the Armed Forces of Guatemala, was killed in a shootout with supporters of President Juan José Arévalo.
- 1966 – Angered by racism and poverty, African American residents of the Hough neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio, began to riot for six days.
- 2014 – Silvio Berlusconi (pictured), the former Prime Minister of Italy, who had previously been found guilty of paying for an underage prostitute, had his conviction overturned on appeal.
- 998 – Arab–Byzantine wars: After an initial Byzantine victory in the Battle of Apamea, a lone Kurdish rider managed to kill Byzantine commander Damian Dalassenos, allowing Fatimid troops to turn the tide of the battle.
- 1843 – SS Great Britain (pictured), the first ocean-going ship that had both an iron hull and a screw propeller, was launched in Bristol, England.
- 1903 – French cyclist Maurice Garin won the first Tour de France.
- 1989 – After suffering an uncontained failure of an engine which destroyed all of its hydraulic systems, United Airlines Flight 232 broke up during an emergency landing in Sioux City, Iowa, U.S., killing 111 people.
- 2014 – Unidentified gunmen perpetrated an armed assault against an Egyptian military checkpoint in the Libyan Desert, killing at least 22 border guards.
- 792 – Byzantine–Bulgarian wars: Bulgarian forces under Kardam routed the Byzantines, forcing them to retreat to Constantinople.
- 1807 – French brothers Claude and Nicéphore Niépce received a patent for their Pyréolophore, one of the world's first internal combustion engines.
- 1922 – The German protectorate of Togoland was divided into the League of Nations mandates of French Togoland and British Togoland.
- 1968 – The first Special Olympics games (athletes at 2013 games pictured) were held at Soldier Field in Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
- 2001 – Twenty-three-year-old Italian anti-globalist Carlo Giuliani was shot dead by a police officer while protesting during the 27th G8 summit in Genoa, Italy.
- 230 – Pope Pontian began his pontificate, succeeding Urban I.
- 905 – Louis III, Holy Roman Emperor, was captured during his attempt to restore Carolingian power over Italy by King Berengar I and blinded.
- 1925 – American high school biology teacher John T. Scopes was found guilty (trial pictured) of violating Tennessee's Butler Act by teaching evolution in class.
- 1973 – Mossad agents mistakenly killed a Moroccan waiter as a result of an assassination attempt in Lillehammer, Norway, believing he had been involved in the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre.
- 2012 – Turkish adventurer Erden Eruç became the first person in history to complete a solo human-powered circumnavigation of the Earth.
- 1298 – English and Irish forces led by Edward Longshanks defeated William Wallace's Scottish troops at the Battle of Falkirk.
- 1793 – Two days after becoming the first recorded person to complete a transcontinental crossing of North America north of Mexico, Scottish explorer Alexander Mackenzie reached the westernmost point of his journey and inscribed his name on a rock (pictured).
- 1944 – In opposition to the Polish government-in-exile, the Soviet-sponsored Polish Committee of National Liberation published its manifesto, calling for radical reforms, a continuation of fighting in World War II against Nazi Germany, nationalisation of industry, and a "decent border in the West".
- 1975 – Stanley Forman took the Pulitzer Prize-winning photo Fire Escape Collapse, which spurred action to improve the safety of fire escapes across the United States.
- 2002 – The Israeli Defense Forces dropped a bomb on the home of Salah Shehade, the leader of the military arm of Hamas, killing him and his family.
- 1862 – American Civil War: Henry Halleck (pictured) was appointed general-in-chief of the Union Army.
- 1921 – The Communist Party of China was founded at the founding National Congress in Shanghai.
- 1942 – The Holocaust: The gas chambers at Treblinka extermination camp began operation, killing 6,500 Jews who had been transported from the Warsaw Ghetto the day before.
- 1974 – Following the collapse of the Greek military junta, the Metapolitefsi period began as the country transitioned to a democratic government.
- 2002 – On the 50th anniversary of its founding, the European Coal and Steel Community disbanded, and its activities and resources were absorbed by the European Community.
- 1701 – French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac established Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, which later grew into the city of Detroit.
- 1783 – The Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and the Russian Empire signed the Treaty of Georgievsk, establishing Georgia as a protectorate of Russia.
- 1910 – Ottoman forces captured the city of Shkodër to put down the Albanian revolt of 1910.
- 1967 – During a speech in Montreal, French President Charles de Gaulle declared "Long live free Quebec!", a statement that was interpreted as support for Quebec independence from Canada.
- 2013 – A Spanish high-speed train derailed at Santiago de Compostela; 79 died and around 140 were injured (rescue efforts pictured).
- 1139 – Prince Afonso Henriques led Portuguese troops to victory over the Almoravid Moors at the Battle of Ourique.
- 1261 – Alexios Strategopoulos led the Nicaean forces of Michael VIII Palaiologos to recapture Constantinople, re-establish the Byzantine Empire, and end the Latin Empire.
- 1893 – The Corinth Canal (pictured), which bisects the narrow Isthmus of Corinth, was formally opened, connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Aegean Sea's Saronic Gulf.
- 1965 – Bob Dylan, who had previously been known for folk music, gave a controversial performance at the Newport Folk Festival, playing songs with an electric guitar.
- 1976 – In a classic example of pareidolia, the Viking 1 spacecraft took a photo of what appeared to be a face on Mars.
- 2007 – Pratibha Patil was sworn in as the first female President of India.
- 1533 – Conquistador Francisco Pizarro executed the last independent Inca Emperor Atahualpa in Cajamarca during the Spanish conquest of the Empire.
- 1759 – French and Indian War: Rather than defend Fort Carillon near present-day Ticonderoga, New York, from an approaching 11,000-man British force, French Brigadier General François-Charles de Bourlamaque withdrew his troops and attempted to blow up the fort.
- 1908 – Unable to use U.S. Secret Service agents as investigators, Attorney General Charles Bonaparte established what is now the Federal Bureau of Investigation as his own staff of special agents.
- 1918 – Emmy Noether's paper, which became known as Noether's theorem was presented at Göttingen, Germany, from which conservation laws are deduced for symmetries of angular momentum, linear momentum, and energy.
- 1953 – Fidel Castro and his brother Raúl led a group of approximately 135 rebels in an unsuccessful attack on the Moncada Barracks (pictured), thus beginning the Cuban Revolution.
- 2007 – After widespread controversy throughout Wales, Shambo, a black Friesian bull that had been adopted by the local Hindu community, was slaughtered due to concerns about bovine tuberculosis.
- 1054 – Siward, Earl of Northumbria, led an invasion of Scotland and defeated Macbeth, King of Scotland, in a battle north of the Firth of Forth.
- 1778 – Anglo-French War: French and British fleets fought the Battle of Ushant, which ended indecisively and led to political disputes in both countries.
- 1942 – Second World War: Allied forces halted the Axis invasion of Egypt (Erwin Rommel pictured with aides).
- 1953 – An armistice was signed to end hostilities in the Korean War, officially making the division of Korea indefinite by creating an approximately 4 km (2.5 mi) wide demilitarized zone across the Korean Peninsula.
- 1990 – Members of Jamaat al Muslimeen attempted to overthrow the government of Trinidad and Tobago by taking hostages at the Red House including Prime Minister A. N. R. Robinson, before surrendering six days later.
- 1794 – French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Antoine de Saint-Just, architects of the Reign of Terror, were executed after having been arrested the previous day.
- 1821 – Peruvian War of Independence: Argentine general José de San Martín declared the independence of Peru from Spain.
- 1917 – In New York City, the NAACP and church and community leaders organized a silent march of at least 8,000 people to protest violence directed towards African Americans.
- 1939 – During an excavation of a ship burial at Sutton Hoo in Suffolk, England, archæologists discovered a helmet (pictured) likely belonging to King Rædwald of East Anglia.
- 2010 – In the deadliest air accident in Pakistan's history, Airblue Flight 202 crashed into the Margalla Hills north of Islamabad, killing all 152 aboard.
- 1148 – The Siege of Damascus ended in a decisive crusader defeat, leading to the disintegration of the Second Crusade.
- 1818 – French physicist Augustin Fresnel submitted his prizewinning "Memoir on the Diffraction of Light", precisely accounting for the limited extent to which light spreads into shadows, and thereby demolishing the oldest objection to the wave theory of light.
- 1836 – The Arc de Triomphe (pictured) in Paris, commemorating those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars, was formally inaugurated.
- 1914 – Connecting Cape Cod Bay and Buzzards Bay in the U.S. state of Massachusetts, the Cape Cod Canal opened on a limited basis.
- 1987 – Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan President J. R. Jayewardene signed the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to resolve the ongoing Sri Lankan Civil War.
- 2010 – An overloaded passenger ferry capsized on the Kasai River in Bandundu Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, resulting in at least 80 deaths.
- 1676 – Virginia colonist Nathaniel Bacon and his makeshift army issued a Declaration of the People of Virginia, instigating a rebellion against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
- 1811 – Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (pictured), an early leader of the Mexican War of Independence, was executed by Spanish authorities.
- 1930 – Uruguay defeated Argentina 4–2 at Estadio Centenario in Montevideo to win the first Football World Cup.
- 1950 – Four striking workers were shot dead by the Gendarmerie in Belgium at the height of the political crisis known as the Royal Question.
- 2012 – The largest power outage in history occurred across 22 Indian states, affecting over 620 million people, or about 9% of the world's population.
- 1201 – John Komnenos the Fat briefly seized the throne of the Byzantine Empire from Alexios III Angelos, but he was soon caught and executed.
- 1423 – Hundred Years' War: The English and their Burgundian allies were victorious over the French at the Battle of Cravant near Auxerre, France.
- 1917 – First World War: The Battle of Passchendaele began near Ypres in West Flanders, Belgium, with the Allied Powers aiming to force German troops to withdraw from the Channel Ports.
- 1972 – The Troubles: Free Derry (Free Derry Corner pictured), an autonomous self-declared area of Derry, Northern Ireland, was brought to an end by the British Army's Operation Motorman.
- 2002 – Hamas detonated a bomb at the Mount Scopus campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, killing nine students and injuring about 100 more.