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|<<||Selected anniversaries for November||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2018 day arrangement
- 1141 – The Anarchy: Stephen of Blois (pictured), recently freed from the captivity of his cousin and rival Matilda, released her strongest supporter from his custody, leading to a years-long stalemate in the civil war.
- 1914 – World War I: The first contingent of the First Australian Imperial Force departed Albany.
- 1956 – The Indian states Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka were formally created under the States Reorganisation Act.
- 1968 – The voluntary Motion Picture Association of America film rating system came into effect for films released in the United States.
- 619 – Emperor Gaozu allowed the assassination of a khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate by Eastern Turkic rivals, one of the earliest events in the Tang campaigns against the Western Turks.
- 1917 – British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour issued a declaration proclaiming British support for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
- 1943 – World War II: A U.S. Navy task force was able to turn away an Imperial Japanese Navy fleet in the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay, thus protecting the landings at Cape Torokina.
- 1990 – Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting merged to form BSkyB, currently the largest pay-TV broadcaster in Europe.
- 2000 – Aboard Expedition 1, American astronaut William Shepherd and Russian cosmonauts Sergei Krikalev and Yuri Gidzenko (all pictured) became the first resident crew to arrive at the International Space Station.
- 1793 – French playwright, journalist and outspoken feminist Olympe de Gouges was guillotined for her revolutionary ideas.
- 1812 – French invasion of Russia: As Napoleon's Grande Armée began its retreat, its rear guard was defeated at the Battle of Vyazma.
- 1948 – The Chicago Daily Tribune published the erroneous headline "Dewey Defeats Truman" in its early morning edition shortly after incumbent U.S. President Harry S. Truman officially upset the heavily favored Governor of New York Thomas Dewey in the presidential election.
- 1954 – The first film featuring the giant monster known as Godzilla was released (poster pictured) nationwide in Japan.
- 1996 – Abdullah Çatlı, a leader of the ultra-nationalist Grey Wolves, was killed in a car crash near Susurluk, Balıkesir Province, Turkey, sparking a scandal which exposed the depth of the state's complicity in organized crime.
- 1780 – In the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, Túpac Amaru II led an uprising of Aymara, Quechua, and mestizo peasants as a protest against the Bourbon reforms.
- 1890 – London's City and South London Railway (locomotive pictured), the first deep-level underground railway in the world, officially opened, running a distance of 3.2 mi (5.1 km) between the City of London and Stockwell.
- 1960 – At the Kasakela chimpanzee community in Tanzania, Jane Goodall observed a chimpanzee using a grass stalk to extract termites from a termite hill, the first recorded case of tool use by animals.
- 2010 – In the first aviation occurrence for an Airbus A380, Qantas Flight 32 suffered an uncontained engine failure and safely made an emergency landing at Singapore Changi Airport with no casualties.
- 1605 – The arrest of Guy Fawkes (pictured), found during a search of the Palace of Westminster, foiled Robert Catesby's plot to blow up the House of Lords.
- 1757 – Seven Years' War: Prussian forces led by Frederick the Great defeated the allied armies of France and the Holy Roman/Austrian Empire at the Battle of Rossbach.
- 1925 – Sidney Reilly, a "super-spy" who was one of the inspirations for James Bond, was executed by the Soviet secret police.
- 1950 – Korean War: The 27th British Commonwealth Brigade succeeded in preventing a Chinese break-through at Pakchon in the Battle of Pakchon.
- 2013 – The Indian Space Research Organisation launched the Mars Orbiter Mission, the nation's first interplanetary probe.
- 447 – A powerful earthquake destroyed large portions of the Walls of Constantinople, including 57 towers.
- 1868 – Red Cloud (pictured), a leader of the Oglala Lakota Native American tribe, signed the second Treaty of Fort Laramie, ending his war and establishing the Great Sioux Reservation.
- 1935 – The Hawker Hurricane, the aircraft responsible for 60% of the Royal Air Force's air victories in the Battle of Britain, made its first flight.
- 1939 – As part of their plan to eradicate the Polish intellectual elite, the Gestapo arrested 184 professors, students and employees of Jagiellonian University in Kraków.
- 1995 – Madagascar's Rova of Antananarivo, which served as the royal palace from the 17th to 19th centuries, was destroyed by fire.
- 680 – The Sixth Ecumenical Council convened in Constantinople to take a position on the theological positions of monoenergism and monothelitism.
- 1811 – American forces led by William Henry Harrison defeated the forces of Shawnee leader Tecumseh's growing confederation at the Battle of Tippecanoe near present-day Battle Ground, Indiana.
- 1949 – Oil was discovered in the Caspian Sea off the coast of Azerbaijan, leading to the construction of Neft Daşları, the world's first offshore oil platform.
- 1987 – Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali deposed and replaced Tunisian President Habib Bourguiba, declaring him medically unfit for the duties of the office.
- 2000 – Hillary Clinton (pictured) was elected as a Senator, becoming the first First Lady to win public office in the United States.
- 1644 – The Shunzhi Emperor (pictured), the third emperor of the Qing dynasty, was enthroned in Beijing after the collapse of the Ming dynasty as the first Qing emperor to rule over China.
- 1861 – American Civil War: The USS San Jacinto stopped the British mailship Trent and arrested two Confederate envoys en route to Europe, sparking a major diplomatic crisis between the United Kingdom and the United States.
- 1940 – The Italian invasion of Greece failed as outnumbered Greek units repulsed the Italians in the Battle of Elaia–Kalamas.
- 1971 – English rock group Led Zeppelin released their fourth album, which would go on to be one of the best-selling albums worldwide.
- 2016 – The Government of India announced the demonetisation of certain banknotes, causing prolonged cash shortages in the weeks that followed and significant disruption throughout the economy.
- 1872 – The Great Boston Fire began, eventually destroying more than 750 buildings and causing $73.5 million in damages in Boston, Massachusetts.
- 1918 – The government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic adopted the national flag (pictured) which is still used by the Republic of Azerbaijan today, with minor modifications.
- 1938 – Kristallnacht began as SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed and ransacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues in Germany and Austria, resulting in at least 90 deaths and the deportation of 30,000 men to concentration camps.
- 1967 – French comic book heroes Valérian and Laureline first appeared in Pilote magazine.
- 2016 – A tram derailed in Croydon, United Kingdom, killing seven people.
- 1202 – The Fourth Crusade began the Siege of Zara (now Zadar, Croatia), the first time Catholic crusaders attacked a Catholic city.
- 1898 – White supremacists seized power in Wilmington, North Carolina, in the only instance of a municipal government being overthrown in United States history.
- 1958 – Merchant Harry Winston donated the Hope Diamond (pictured), the "most famous diamond in the world", to the Smithsonian Institution.
- 1975 – The United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 3379, which equated Zionism with racism.
- 2006 – Prominent Sri Lankan Tamil politician and human rights lawyer Nadarajah Raviraj was assassinated in Colombo.
- 1620 – The Mayflower Compact, the first governing document of the Plymouth Colony, was signed by 41 of the Mayflower's passengers while the ship was anchored in what is now Provincetown Harbor.
- 1805 – War of the Third Coalition: French, Austrian and Russian units all suffered heavy losses in the Battle of Dürenstein.
- 1934 – The Shrine of Remembrance, a memorial to all Australians who have served in war, opened in Melbourne.
- 1965 – Rhodesia, led by Prime Minister Ian Smith, unilaterally declared independence from the United Kingdom.
- 1892 – William Heffelfinger (pictured) was paid $500 by the Allegheny Athletic Association, becoming the first professional American football player on record.
- 1912 – The bodies of Robert Falcon Scott and his companions were discovered, roughly eight months after their deaths during the ill-fated British Antarctic Expedition 1910.
- 1928 – At least 110 people died after the British ocean liner SS Vestris was abandoned as it sank in the western Atlantic Ocean.
- 1940 – World War II: Free French forces captured Gabon from Vichy France.
- 2011 – A blast in Iran's Shahid Modarres missile base led to the death of 17 members of the Revolutionary Guards, including Hassan Tehrani Moghaddam, a key figure in Iran's missile program.
- 1642 – First English Civil War: The Royalist army engaged the much larger Parliamentarian army at the Battle of Turnham Green near Turnham Green, Middlesex.
- 1841 – Scottish surgeon James Braid observed a demonstration of animal magnetism, which inspired him to study the subject he eventually called hypnotism.
- 1940 – Walt Disney's Fantasia, the first commercial film shown in stereophonic sound, premiered at the Broadway Theatre in New York City.
- 1985 – The volcano Nevado del Ruiz (pictured) erupted, causing a volcanic mudslide that buried the town of Armero, Colombia, and killed approximately 23,000 people.
- 2015 – Terrorist attacks in Paris perpetrated by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant killed 130 people and injured 413 others.
- 1680 – Gottfried Kirch, a German astronomer, discovered the Great Comet of 1680, the first to be found using a telescope.
- 1940 – Second World War: Coventry Cathedral (ruins pictured) and much of the city centre of Coventry, England, were destroyed by the Luftwaffe during the Coventry Blitz.
- 1960 – Ruby Bridges and the McDonogh Three became the first black children to attend an all-white elementary school in Louisiana as part of the New Orleans school desegregation crisis.
- 1975 – With the signing of the Madrid Accords, Spain agreed to withdraw its presence from the territory of Spanish Sahara.
- 1990 – Germany and Poland signed the German–Polish Border Treaty, confirming their border at the Oder–Neisse line, which was originally defined by the Potsdam Agreement in 1945.
- 1315 – A 1,500-strong force from the Swiss Confederacy ambushed a group of Austrian soldiers of the Holy Roman Empire on the shores of Lake Ägerisee in Switzerland.
- 1760 – The chapel of the new Castellania Palace in Valletta, Malta, was consecrated.
- 1859 – Sponsored by Greek businessman Evangelos Zappas, the first modern revival of the Olympic Games took place in Athens.
- 1943 – The Holocaust: Heinrich Himmler ordered that Romanies were to be put "on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps".
- 1988 – The Soviet Buran spacecraft (pictured), a reusable vehicle built in response to NASA's Space Shuttle program, was launched, unmanned, on its only flight.
- 534 – The Codex Repetitae Praelectionis, the second edition of the Codex Justinianus, the codification of Roman law by Justinian I, was published.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: British and Hessian units captured Fort Washington from the Patriots.
- 1885 – After a five-day trial following the North-West Rebellion, Louis Riel (pictured), Canadian rebel leader of the Métis and "Father of Manitoba", was hanged for high treason.
- 1938 – Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann first synthesized the psychedelic drug LSD at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland.
- 1973 – U.S. President Richard Nixon signed an act authorizing the construction of the Alaska Pipeline to transport oil from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Alaska.
- 1558 – Elizabeth I (pictured) became Queen of England and Ireland, marking the beginning of the Elizabethan era.
- 1796 – French Revolutionary Wars: French forces defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Arcole in a manoeuvre to cut the latter's line of retreat.
- 1968 – NBC controversially cut away from an American football game between the Oakland Raiders and New York Jets to broadcast Heidi, causing viewers in the Eastern United States to miss the game's dramatic ending.
- 1993 – General Sani Abacha ousted Ernest Shonekan to become chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council of Nigeria.
- 2013 – Tatarstan Airlines Flight 363 crashed during an aborted landing at Kazan International Airport in Tatarstan, Russia, killing all 50 people on board and leading to the revocation of the airline's certificate.
- 1809 – Napoleonic Wars: In the Bay of Bengal, a French frigate squadron captured three East Indiamen mainly carrying recruits for the Indian Army.
- 1872 – American suffragette Susan B. Anthony was arrested and fined $100 for having voted in the U.S. presidential election in Rochester, New York, two weeks prior.
- 1956 – In the Polish embassy in Moscow, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said "We will bury you" while addressing Western envoys, prompting them to leave the room.
- 1978 – Jim Jones led more than 900 members of the Peoples Temple to mass murder/suicide in Jonestown, Guyana, hours after some of its members assassinated U.S. Congressman Leo Ryan (pictured).
- 2012 – Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria took office as the 118th Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
- 1794 – The United States and Great Britain signed the Jay Treaty, the basis for ten years of peaceful trade between the two nations.
- 1863 – American Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
- 1942 – World War II: Soviet troops launched Operation Uranus at the Battle of Stalingrad, with the goal of encircling Axis forces, turning the tide of the battle in the Soviet Union's favour.
- 1969 – Playing for Santos against Vasco da Gama in Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian footballer Pelé (pictured) scored his one thousandth goal.
- 2010 – The first of four explosions occurred at the Pike River Mine in the West Coast region of New Zealand in the nation's worst mining disaster in nearly a century.
- 284 – Diocletian (pictured on coin) became the Roman emperor, eventually establishing reforms that ended the Crisis of the Third Century.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Fort Lee marked the invasion of New Jersey by British and Hessian forces and the subsequent general retreat of the Continental Army.
- 1917 – First World War: The Battle of Cambrai began with British forces having initial success over Germany's Hindenburg Line.
- 1990 – Andrei Chikatilo, one of the Soviet Union's most prolific serial killers with 56 convicted murders, was arrested in Novocherkassk.
- 1994 – In accordance with the Lusaka Protocol, the Angolan government signed a ceasefire with UNITA rebels in a failed attempt to end the Angolan Civil War.
- 1386 – Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur captured and sacked the Georgian capital of Tbilisi, forcing King Bagrat V to convert to Islam.
- 1894 – First Sino-Japanese War: After capturing the city of Lüshunkou, the Japanese Second Army killed more than 1,000 Chinese servicemen and civilians.
- 1918 – Polish troops and civilians began a three-day pogrom against Jews and Ukrainian Christians in Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine).
- 1977 – "God Defend New Zealand" (audio featured) became New Zealand's second national anthem, on equal standing with "God Save the Queen", which had been the traditional one since 1840.
- 2009 – An explosion in a coal mine in Heilongjiang, China, killed 108 miners.
- 1718 – The pirate Blackbeard was killed in battle by a boarding party of British sailors off the coast of North Carolina, ending his reign of terror in the Caribbean.
- 1812 – War of 1812: During a punitive expedition against Native American villages, a contingent of Indiana Rangers were ambushed by Kickapoo, Winnebago, and Shawnee warriors.
- 1910 – The crews of the Brazilian warships Minas Geraes, São Paulo, Bahia—all commissioned only months before—and several smaller vessels mutinied against what they called the "slavery" being practiced in the Brazilian Navy.
- 1935 – The China Clipper flying boat (pictured) took off from Alameda, California, U.S., to become the first service to deliver airmail cargo across the Pacific Ocean.
- 1967 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 242 in the aftermath of the Six-Day War between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.
- 1867 – The Manchester Martyrs were hanged in Manchester, England, for killing a police officer while helping two Irish nationalists escape from police custody.
- 1876 – William "Boss" Tweed, a New York City politician who had been arrested for embezzlement, was handed to U.S. authorities after having escaped from prison to Spain.
- 1924 – Edwin Hubble published evidence in a newspaper that the Andromeda Nebula, previously believed to be part of the Milky Way, is actually another galaxy, one of many in the universe.
- 1992 – IBM introduced the Simon (pictured), a handheld, touchscreen mobile phone and PDA that is considered the first smartphone.
- 2007 – MS Explorer became the first cruise ship to sink in the Antarctic Ocean.
- 1542 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: England captured about 1,200 Scottish prisoners with its victory in the Battle of Solway Moss.
- 1642 – A Dutch expedition led by Abel Tasman reached what is now Tasmania, Australia.
- 1922 – Irish Civil War: Author and Irish nationalist Erskine Childers was executed by the Irish Free State for illegally carrying a semi-automatic pistol.
- 1963 – Businessman Jack Ruby shot and fatally wounded Lee Harvey Oswald (shooting pictured), the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, during a live television broadcast, fueling conspiracy theories on the matter.
- 2015 – A Turkish fighter jet shot down a Russian Sukhoi Su-24M, claiming the latter had strayed into Turkish airspace and ignored warnings to change course.
- 1759 – The second of two strong earthquakes struck the Levant and destroyed all the villages in the Beqaa Valley.
- 1795 – Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, was forced to abdicate after the Third Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
- 1917 – World War I: German troops invaded Portuguese East Africa (fighting pictured) in an attempt to escape superior British forces to the north and resupply from captured Portuguese materiel.
- 1947 – McCarthyism: Executives from movie studios agreed to blacklist ten screenwriters and directors who were jailed for refusing to give testimony to the House Un-American Activities Committee.
- 1975 – Upon Suriname's independence from the Netherlands, Johan Ferrier became its first president.
- 1805 – The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, the longest aqueduct in Great Britain and the highest in the world, opened.
- 1842 – The University of Notre Dame (main building pictured) was founded by Rev. Edward Sorin, of the Congregation of Holy Cross, as an all-male institution in South Bend, Indiana, US.
- 1917 – Unable to resolve disputes with Eddie Livingstone, owner of the Toronto Blueshirts, the other ice hockey clubs of Canada's National Hockey Association officially agreed to break away and form the National Hockey League.
- 1942 – Casablanca, starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, premiered at the Hollywood Theatre in New York City to coincide with the Allied invasion of North Africa and the capture of Casablanca.
- 1977 – A speaker claiming to represent the "Intergalactic Association" interrupted the Southern Television broadcast in South East England, warning viewers that "All your weapons of evil must be destroyed."
- 1703 – The Great Storm of 1703, one of the most severe storms to strike southern Great Britain, destroyed the first Eddystone Lighthouse (pictured) off Plymouth.
- 1856 – King-Grand Duke William III unilaterally revised the constitution of Luxembourg, greatly expanding his powers.
- 1919 – The first fraternity exclusively for collegiate band members, Kappa Kappa Psi, was founded on the campus of Oklahoma State University in Stillwater.
- 1944 – Between 3,500 and 4,000 tonnes of ordnance exploded at the RAF Fauld underground munitions storage depot in the largest non-nuclear explosion in the United Kingdom.
- 2009 – A bomb exploded under a high-speed train travelling between Moscow and Saint Petersburg derailing it, killing 28 passengers and injuring more than 90 others.
- 1470 – Emperor Lê Thánh Tông of Annam (Vietnam) launched a military expedition against Champa, beginning the Cham–Annamese War.
- 1660 – At London's Gresham College, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, Christopher Wren and other leading scientists founded a learned society now known as the Royal Society (coat of arms pictured).
- 1895 – The first automobile race in the United States, the Chicago Times-Herald race, was held in Chicago.
- 1971 – Prime Minister of Jordan Wasfi al-Tal was assassinated by the Black September unit of the Palestine Liberation Organization in Cairo.
- 1987 – South African Airways Flight 295 suffered a catastrophic in-flight fire and crashed into the Indian Ocean east of Mauritius, killing all 159 on board.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: British reinforcements brought an end to the Patriot attempt to capture Fort Cumberland in Nova Scotia.
- 1807 – Maria I of Portugal (pictured), the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people departed Lisbon for the colony of Brazil just days before Napoleonic forces invaded.
- 1947 – The United Nations General Assembly voted to approve the Partition Plan for Palestine, a plan to resolve the Arab–Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine by separating the territory into Jewish and Arab states.
- 1987 – Korean Air Flight 858 exploded over the Andaman Sea after two North Korean agents left a time bomb in an overhead compartment, killing all 115 people on board.
- 2007 – During their trial for the 2003 Oakwood mutiny, Philippine soldiers led by Senator Antonio Trillanes staged a mutiny and temporarily seized a conference room in The Peninsula Manila hotel.
- 1853 – Crimean War: Russian warships led by Pavel Nakhimov destroyed an Ottoman fleet of frigates at the Battle of Sinop, providing France and the UK cause to join the war.
- 1872 – The first international football match took place at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow, between Scotland and England.
- 1939 – World War II: The Winter War broke out as the Soviet Red Army invaded Finland (Soviet prisoners of war pictured) and quickly advanced to the Mannerheim Line, an action judged illegal by the League of Nations.
- 1999 – Protests by anti-globalization activists against the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Seattle, Washington, U.S., forced the cancellation of its opening ceremonies.
- 2007 – Swami Rambhadracharya, a Hindu religious leader, released the first Braille version of the Bhagavad Gita scripture.